Category Archives: Photo Tip

What is so Super about a Super Moon?

August 10, 2014 just passed. It was the most recent Super moon. The term “Super moon” was coined by astrologers not astronomers and refers to a moon which is both full and also within 4 hours of its closest approach to earth.

The media gleefully report the super moon and show pictures of huge moons (many of which have been photo manipulated).  Here is the straight scoop on the subject. If you’re wondering whether that photo you’ve seen of the “too big to be true moon” has been doctored, we have an article on that.

Extreme SuperMoon [5_059193]

The most “Extreme” Supermoon of the Century occurred in 2012.  Here it was photographed in Yosemite approximately 15 minutes after it reached perigee.

What Makes the Moon Larger or Smaller When Seen from Earth?

Because the orbit of the moon around the earth is not circular, the distance from earth to the moon varies and thus the apparent (angular size) of the moon changes. Every lunar cycle the earth-lunar distance varies between its closest approach called perigee and its farthest distance, called apogee.  How big is the difference? The closest approach is 363,104 km (225,622 miles) and the farthest, 406,696 km (252,088 miles). 

What is the difference in apparent size?  At apogee, the moon is 22,293 km farther away or -5.8% smaller than an average moon.  At perigee the moon is 5.54% larger than the average moon. Comparing apogee and perigee moons, the difference is a maximum angular size difference of about 12%  The average angular size of the moon, by the way, is half of a degree or 30 minutes of arc. That angle is slightly smaller than the size of the nail on your little finger when held at arm’s length. Those of you with significantly mis-sized pinky nails or unusual arm length might want to find another object to measure with at arm’s length.

In short: You’d have to be a very keen observer to notice a 12% difference in size between a super moon and a “wimpy” (apogee) moon.

Because the moon is slowly spiraling away from earth eventually the perigee moon will grow smaller and smaller in apparent size until one day, we will no longer experience total solar eclipses. The perigee moon will be too small to cover the angular disk of the sun which also happens to be almost exactly one half of a degree. From that point on, all solar eclipses will be “annular” like this one in May, 2012. Had the moon been closer to the earth, this may have been a total solar eclipse.

Annular Eclipse Sequence [C_040079+5s]

 

 

How is a Full Moon Determined?

A full moon is defined as the moment in time when the sun, earth and moon are in syzygy. Syzygy is not only an interesting Scrabble(tm) word, but it defines when three bodies are in alignment. When the sun and moon are 180 degrees opposite one another relative to the Earth, we have syzygy which is the instance in which the moon is Full Moon. Many of us think of a “full moon” as that period during the month when the moon appears to be fully lit. That period lasts almost 70 hours, so we understand how reckoning a full moon as a moment in time is a bit confusing.

If you didn’t observe the August moon within 4 hours either side of when it was full, you did not see the super moon.  On the United States West Coast the super moon was not visible. Why? The moon set at 6:10 AM almost 5 hours before the moon was full. Those in Hawaii could just catch the super moon setting.  Those on the East Coast of the US had no chance at all. The whole super moon window occurred during the time the moon was not visible on the East Coast.

The Last (and Next) Visible Super Moons

If you missed the May, 2012 Extreme Super Moon (my term, photo above), you’ve missed the largest possible full moon for more than a century into the future. On May 5, 2012 fullness and perigee occurred within less than two minutes of one another.  But don’t fret.  The difference in size between the extreme super moon an the average super moon is too small to notice unless you measure carefully.  If you paid close attention you probably also noticed that the May 20, 2012 annular solar eclipse followed nearly half a lunar cycle after the May 5, 2012 super moon. That is not a coincidence! The moon was closest to us on May 5th so half of a lunar cycle away it must be farthest from us!

On August 10, 2014, full moon and perigee occurred within about 1 hour of each other. The next super moon is in September 8, 2014. The moon will not be as close to perigee at the moment when it becomes full, but the moment of full moon occurs at 9:38 PM PDT, just as the moon rises. It will be a true super moon!

Catch One Yourself

We plan to schedule a “Catching the Moon” Webinar well in advance. Stay tuned.  One complication is that the wonderful Photographer’s Ephemeris Tool will cease to work in desktop mode soon. It is being replaced with a browser version. While the tools is excellent, and we highly recommend it (and that you donate if you use it!) TPE still leaves some important bits of the puzzle unresolved – we will fill those in for you and give you a crack at our tool(s).

The moon caught between El Capitan and Half Dome - Actual size, no manipulation

The moon caught between El Capitan and Half Dome, Yosemite National Park – Actual size, no manipulation

Advanced Stacker PLUS and Lightroom

Treecycle

We get requests often: “Can I use Lightroom” to stack my photos?  The answer is yes, you can – but there are some nuisances. See the “Plusses” and “Minuses” listed at the bottom of this article.

It is a bit painful to run Photoshop Actions from within Lightroom especially compared to the relative ease of using  Adobe Bridge to drive the stacker.  But using Lightroom does have a few charms, so how do you accomplish the goal of stacking using the Advanced Stacker PLUS?

Here is What to Do

  1. Install and configure the Advanced Stacker PLUS.
  2. In Photoshop Use File -> Automate -> Create Droplet for the “Do This First” step. Be sure to select all the needed options as shown.
    PS_AutomateCreateDroplet.bmp
  3. Also Create a Droplet for your favorite stacking method (E.g. Short Comets).
    PS_CreateDroplet.bmp

    Minimum options. If you plan to use Intermediates, also specify an output folder and naming convention.

  4. In Lightroom use Export -> Post Processing (down at the bottom) After Export -> Go To Export Folder NOW.
    LightroomExport_PostProcessing.bmpLightroomExportActions_folder_windows.bmp
  5. Copy the Droplet files into the folder that opened when you did the “Go to Export Folder” action.
  6. Next pull down the After Export and choose “Do This First”
  7. It’s probably safe to leave all the other defaults, but you can choose resizing, file type and naming options. We recommend exporting into a subfolder e.g. “LargeJPGs” or “LargeTIFFs”
  8. Click “Add” to save this as a user Preset.
  9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 with your favorite stacking action(s)

We learned some of these tips from this website.

PLUSSES:

  1. You can pick specific files from a folder (or multiple folders) for stacking – you don’t have to stack a whole folder of files.
  2. You don’t have to leave Lightroom

MINUSES:

  1. Lightroom will first export the files after applying Lightroom or Adobe Camera RAW processing to them. This chews up a bit more file space.
  2. Because of the extra step, stacking using Droplets in Lightroom may take a bit longer.
  3. More memory is required since you will be using both Lightroom and Photoshop at once.
  4. Droplets are not portable, that is you can’t run a Mac droplet on a Windows PC and v.v. (but the Stacking Action scripts are portable).
  5. If you use intermediates, there is not an option to change which folder is used to accumulate the results.

How to Fly with Camera Gear

We, that is, Steven and the Mrs. recently had to attend a funeral on the East Coast. Steven lives on the Left Coast.  If you’re wondering what this post has to do with photography, he will admit that this article is part rant against Delta Airlines and part tips on transporting photography (or other) gear and assorted other tips. I’ve flown all over with my gear both in the US and internationally and picked up a few tips which I offer to you. I would be interested to hear any tips you have as well! If you want to skip the rant and go straight to the tips, just scroll down for the title: “Tips on Traveling with Camera Gear

Fare Tip: Bereavement fares may be available, but those fares are very likely to be a bad deal. Qualifying for a fare requires many hoops to jump through. You may find, as we did, that you can get a much better price by using PriceLine or similar service. Warning, however: you may also discover that you will be treated like a pariah. Our 3 flights went from San Jose, to LAX to Raleigh-Durham. In each flight we were relegated to the non-reclining back row seats.  This means no-resting, and extreme first hand familiarity with the poo bin. Indeed, even the new aircraft we flew on from LAX to ATL actually had direct visual access INTO the bathroom. Arom-rama and people standing around twitching does not really heighten the flying experience in any way.

Book early enough to NOT have to be in or near the back row (hard to do, of course if your travel is of an emergency nature).

But wait, it’s worse!  When we booked we were only able to claim seats on the last leg of our 3-hop circuit. The other two legs were “gate holds”.  When we checked in at the airport desk rather than actually giving us boarding passes for any flights, we were given a “placebo pass” for the first leg and told to claim our boarding passes at the gate. The gate was CHANGED however. It wasn’t actually gate 7, but gate 5.  At gate 5, apparently there was some additional difficulty. The printer was not printing.  No problem, we were told… just stop at any attended counter when we disembark.  Mind you that we only had a 40 minute layover, the plane was late arriving and since we were at the back of the plane we lost still more time while the hordes ahead of us disembarked. We had what seemed to be fractional seconds to exit the plane get boarding passes AND get to the departure gate in another terminal.  The first attended Delta counter employee said “Sorry, we’re really busy with this flight right now, could you please go to another counter?” What did we learn from this?

Insist on getting all of your boarding passes at the beginning. Don’t believe it when they tell you you can get them later – you may not have enough time or cooperation.

We ran to the gate listed on the flight display only to find that the plane we were to take the next 4+ hour ride on was already boarding.  We found ourselves relegated again to the “bathroom seats”. By now we were quite hungry, but without time to even buy a snack in LAX. We were relying on the food (at extra charge) to be served on the long leg of our flight. BUT (you knew there’d be a BUT), they RAN OUT OF FOOD about 12 rows ahead of us.  One bag of peanuts and pretzels were our only sustenance.  On a subsequent leg, beverage service was suspended due to turbulence.  The back half of the plane was unserved – not the airline’s fault, of course, but it is a cautionary tale about being prepared.

Tip: Pack something to eat *and* drink. Something substantial because you can’t trust the airlines (Delta, at least) to have any food for you. Bonus tip, make sure that your food is in your “personal item” since you may not be able to fetch it if there is turbulence, or you have to store your bag far away (see below). Ditto for any medication you might need.

The Delta in flight entertainment screens worked great except for the intermittent pop-up 32 second advertisements that were SO LOUD you literally had to yank off your head phones or risk deafness. Oh, and the Delta attendants were also hawking American Express cards seat to seat. On the way back, I was amused to learn that the entertainment system runs Linux, and crashes!  So a tip here is do not use the Delta entertainment system unless you really want additional aggravation. Besides, they are going to charge you $5 to play Sudoku – you can get the iPhone app for free. Another thing to consider: in my experience about half of the jacks for headphones are marginally to completely non-functional.  You’re better off bringing your own entertainment on board.

Delta Inflight Entertainment Crash

Delta Inflight Entertainment Crash

Tips on Traveling with Camera Gear

As you are probably aware, Delta and many other airlines charge an additional fee if you check baggage. The additional charge has many side effects, including making it take longer to check-in. And of course it also means people are taking MORE on board the airplane to avoid those fees.  The geniuses at Delta (and Virgin) have confounded the problem with their policies. If you lug a huge-ish bag all the way to the gate, they will gate check your bag for FREE. Smart people have concluded that schlepping a large bag to the gate will likely result in not being bilked out of another $50!  The bag fiasco also means that the airline will try really hard to convince you to gate check your bag otherwise there won’t be enough overhead space!

My fully packed f-Stop Tilopa photo bag WITH tripod easily fits in every overhead bin I’ve faced. I usually separate the tripod and put it crosswise in the narrow section at the back of overhead bin. You can also attach the tripod to either side of the bag, but depending on your tripod, it might be too long to fit.

FStop Tilopa Pack

FStop Tilopa Pack

On most aircraft, the Tilopa fits long-way in – meaning the bottom of the pack is at the back of the bin rather than sideways. In fact, it’s almost a perfect fit that way. The Tilopa might look bigger than many carry ons, but it’s not! My Tilopa even fit sideways in the 50 passenger commuter aircraft. One additional benefit to carry ons: domestic airlines do not usually weigh your carry on. You might get away (as I did*) with stuffing 45 pounds of gear in there! And don’t worry, the posted weight capacity of those overhead bins is around 160 pounds… so even if three of you packed the crap out of your bags and stuffed them in the same overhead bin, the bin is engineered to take it.  It also means if you could appear to effortlessly shuffle a 100 pound bag around the airline would be none-the-wiser and you’d not have to pay an overweight baggage fee! If the airline wants to shake you down for every nickel and $20 bill they can, you might as well do some creative baggage management of your own. Besides, do you really trust baggage handling to not break or “lose” your thousands of dollars investment in camera gear?

I’ve never had a problem traveling with my tripod. Screeners seem to understand what a tripod is both when traveling domestically and internationally. Once when leaving Israel I was warned that I might not be able to take the tripod on board but there was no problem going through security. Every once in a while I am asked to remove my camera and lenses from the pack, but most of the time the pack – chock full of bodies, lenses, batteries and miscellany goes through screening without a hitch.

Those overhead bins aren’t ONLY for passengers. On our Delta flight we found toilet paper, and leaking bathroom deodorizer refills together with the usual oxygen and blankets in the overhead bin above us. To find space for your pack, you’ll want to get on the plane as SOON AS YOU CAN. That usually means you want to be IN LINE well before your zone or row are called even if they politely insist that you wait in your lounge seat. But being the first in your group may not be enough. The only available overhead space might be many rows in front of or behind you.  I now understand why the guy in row 33 put his junk over my row 17 seat: he was not lazy he had to adapt because the airline had co-opted what would have been his overhead space.  If you’re traveling on Southwest, it is probably well worth the $10 fee per flight to get “automated checkin”. That may get you in the A list for boarding.  If you find yourself in the “B” or “C” section on Southwest, you might want to get the $40 business boarding “upgrade” for at least one in your party.

Those overhead bins apparently are seldom ever cleaned. I used a thick white paper towel to wipe out the leaking bathroom deodorizer and the paper towel came out as black as my camera bag!  Don’t throw a sport jacket up there unless it’s in something to keep it from getting icky – or maybe you don’t mind smelling like a lavatory 🙂

Oia at Night (Οία τη νύχτα)

Oia at Night (Οία τη νύχτα)

*I often carry about 45 pounds (17 kg) of gear in my pack. Only the Greek airline Aegean asked to weigh my carry-on bag – and their weight limit was 7 kg despite the 90 kg capacity of the overhead bins.  They allowed me a waiver since the flight wasn’t full.  Despite their check of my carry on bag Aegean is one of the best airlines I’ve ever traveled on. Delta could learn a few lessons from them!

The Revenge of Lens Correction

There are plenty of ways to make your images look weird.  Some of the perturbations are due to sneaky little things that Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Lightroom and/or Adobe Camera RAW might be doing to the data.  We already talked about the “cooking” that is applied by default to RAW images and why letting that cooking stand unchallenged may be a bad thing. We’ve even warned you about Blur and Jaggies that may NOT in fact be in your images.

Recently Dan Barr asked us what we thought was causing a problem in his stacked star trails. If you read the title you’ve probably already figured out the culprit… Lens Correction!  You may not notice anything weird if you process only a single image, but what if Star Trails, or image stacking are what floats your boat?

Notice the strange pattern in the upper left. This image is cropped from a larger image.

Notice the strange pattern in the upper left. This image is cropped from a larger image. Image by Timbo2013

Look in the upper left of the image above. That cross hatching is one possible artifact.

Why does this happen? The lens correction is a mathematical model that moves pixels around. Not surprisingly, since the images change – even if slightly, the results vary slightly, too.

How do you fix the problem?  Don’t mess with your images before you stack them.  Save the lens correction, contrast adjustments and other tweaks for after you’ve finished stacking.

Here is a before and after comparison:

danBarr_moire_marked

Notice the odd “Moire” like pattern above and to the right of the mountain? (Image courtesy of Dan Barr)

It’s a little subtle. Here is the weird part close up – notice the vertical undulations? The oddness somewhat resembles sensor banding noise except when you look at a larger scale, the lines are concentric.

ConcentricLines

 

By redoing the stacking operation without performing lens correction, Dan was able to get an image without the waves:

Stacked first, then adjusted – no moire!

With the strangeness vanquished, Dan was able to improve the brightness and contrast as well.