# Sequenced Shots (How To)

How on earth did I end up with this:

What I started with was lots of shots that looked liked these first three images – i.e not much of anything.

As I went along I ended up combining the “specks” into the image at the lower left. I combined the sequence with a shot taken just after sunset (middle bottom) and the result is as shown in the lower right.

We will soon provide the explanation of how to create the result. First we would like to give some clues about how the shot was planned – because, as it turns out, planning is an important part of all sequences like this one!

## Avoidable Technical Content

The May 20, Annular Solar eclipse was well documented. Particularly handy is Nasa’s map based application. Choose a spot on earth by clicking on the map and some useful data pops up:

See those highlighted numbers… they tell you that when the eclipse starts it will be 31.5 degrees high in the sky, and when it ends it will be 5 degrees high – about 27 degrees top to bottom.  Allowing another 5 degrees above and say 10 below we need an image that spans 42 degrees in one direction.  Looking at the Azi numbers  The eclipse begins at 270 degrees (due west) and ends at 292.2 degrees (WNW).  So to take that all in and allow a little breathing room we need about 30 degrees.   Thus we know our field of view needs to be somewhere around 42 degrees vertically and 30 degrees horizontally. Already it sounds like we would prefer portrait mode to keep the sun/moon as large as possible. Using one of the many online tools, like the Angular Field of View Calculator by Tawbaware. Canon people might prefer the “easy to click, but perhaps not so easy to understand Canon equipment specific calculator.”

On a full frame camera, the 50 mm lens comes out to 39 x 27 degrees. which would just fit the whole sequence.  I decided to use my 70mm lens – because I already had a solar filter for it. My plan was to wait until I could catch the sun in the upper left of the frame and the foreground I wanted at the bottom. When the sun arrived, I slapped on the solar filter and started automatic 30 second intervals between exposures.

## Or Just Go with Luck

Perhaps my first attempt was not so well planned.

I was too interested in keeping Mt Tamalpais in the picture and ALMOST didn’t get the whole moonset. I know better now! Over three years ago I described how I created the image.  The technique is an extension of my previously described Easy HDR method.

## To Be Continued…

In Part 2 of this article, we will show you a few helpful little addenda to make the process easier to manage. We will reveal a Photoshop-only method to approach the problem, AND for good measure a nifty tool to make it easy as pie.

Meanwhile if you are intrigued by the moon, you might want to join us from WHEREVER you are on one of our fun, informative, and oh so reasonably priced Moonatic Webinars.  Or maybe the next Photo Manipulation webinar is just your size.

# Solar Eclipse… May 20th.

If this is the first you’ve heard of this event, it may be too late to be properly prepared to photograph it. The maximum occurs at around 6:33 PM for those in the San Francisco Bay Area (and at most a few minutes before or after that for everyone else in California).  Be sure to go out at least 5 minutes prior, though. To get a more exact time, click the map below then double click on your location. Don’t let the date of May 21st fool you! The time shown will be “UTC” the time in *London*. Those in the Pacific Time zone must SUBTRACT seven hours from UTC.  If the time of maximum is listed as: 2012/05/21 01:33:24 then the Pacific time is seven hours EARLIER or 18:33:24 (6:33 PM).

# What NOT To DO

• DO NOT look at the sun even during the maximum period. This is an Annular eclipse so much of the sun will NOT be covered.
• If you MUST see the eclipse make sure you have proper eye protection. A camera obscura may work. A Camera Obscura is a box with a pinhole in it that allows you to observe the sun by looking in through the SIDE of the box at the projected image (not through the pinhole!)
• For many more NOTs see here.
• Here is one “not” illustrated for you.  For this I took a pair of low power binoculars held the safe solar filters against the eyepiece and pointed the unit at the sun. See the pinhole burned through the plastic… imagine that is your eye, now blinded.  Don’t Do It.

What NOT to Do! See that hole burned by the sun? That could be your eye!

Here is a page describing how to observe safely, including building a pinhole “camera obscura”.

# Solar Filters

Publish Date: April 9, 2012
Last updated May 29, 2017.

If you’re just now trying to get a solar filter for the upcoming total solar eclipse, hurry! Try a telescope store if there is one near you.  Trust me, most of them are sold out. PLEASE DO NOT attempt to photograph or observe the sun if you are not properly prepared. PERMANENT BLINDNESS or DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT may result.

I  have been asked a lot about solar filters and why I was strongly encouraging people to get them. First let me explain how you might use them, then I’ll talk about the different kinds of solar filters and their costs.

Here are several shots of the sun rising behind Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, San Jose, CA. All shots are without any filter.

The upper exposures are pretty conventional.  The exposures at the bottom, however, are clearly MUCH shorter and exhibit excessive flaring mostly due to IR light.  Indeed, here are the settings from upper left to lower right:

• ISO 200, f/11, 1/80
• ISO 200, f/11, 1/640
• ISO 200, f/11, 1/8000
• ISO 100, f/36, 1/2000

What is probably immediately obvious is the glare / flare and color fringing.  Compare the above shots to this one:

This is NOT a single shot, it’s a blend of two shots.  The thing to notice is how much better tamed the violently bright sun is. Another important consideration is that a solar filter provides a boatload of protection to both the eyes and the camera equipment more on that in a moment.  The bottom line is that the flare is well controlled and the sun exposure is sufficient that if there were a large sunspot on it, you’d be able to see it.

## What Can I Do With A Solar Filter?

1. Safely capture a Solar Eclipse prior totality.
Why: Because it’s cool and solar eclipses visible from any given area are relatively rare.
2. Safely capture the Transit of Venus on Tuesday, June 5, 2012.
Why: Because this event won’t repeat for another 105 years! It’s rarer than Halley’s comet and it’s visible from everywhere in the continental United States. [Sorry your missed it!]
3. Capture sunspot activity.
Why: We are approaching the solar maximum where sunspots and coronal mass ejections are at their most active.
4. Composite a nicely formed sun into your shots.  You can use my “Easy HDR” method described in a prior column.
5. Seek solar alignments where the sun forms the back light to silhouette a foreground object.
6. Catch the International Space Station (or other spacecraft) as it hurtles across the face of the sun.
7. Use the solar filter as an “ultra stopper” to make extremely long daytime exposures of e.g. waterfalls or surf.

For some good background on how to observe an eclipse, see here.

## Do I Need Protection?

For your eyes, absolutely. For your camera, HIGHLY recommended.  People often go “over the top” in their worry that a big lens will burn an instant hole in the sensor or camera body should they aim it at the sun. The image projected is onto a broad area at least as big as your sensor.  In a short period of time i.e. a 1/4,000 of a second exposure nothing horrible is likely to happen to the sensor at least. The combination of a mirror and shutter in a DSLR provides SOME protection to your camera and sensor from “certain doom” however if you were to ask my advice, I’d say DON’T use your camera to photograph the sun unless you have a SOLAR FILTER.  Most especially do not use live view (or a point and shoot camera) pointed at the sun. That tactic is very likely to damage your camera.

When I zoom in on the sun, isn’t that concentrating the light even more?

Well actually, just the opposite.  Instead of focusing all the energy on one spot, you’re spreading it over the sensor surface. So in fact, the sunlight is more concentrated when you don’t use a telephoto lens.

DO NOT look through the viewfinder to compose your shot unless you have a proper solar filter!  Permanent eye damage may result. Even then be careful.  And we just figured out that it’s not a good idea to use Live View to compose a shot.

## What Kinds of Filters Are There? What Do They Cost?

There are filters that you can wear or hold over your eyes. I highly recommend you get a pair. These are rated “ND 5”** and allow only 1/100,000 of the energy to pass through – they are effectively 16.6 f-stops of light reduction. Alternatively you can use a welders mask (though I bet not many of you have one!) #13 or greater.  Cost of wearable / simple filters ranges from \$1 or so to \$20 and more depending on the type.  Wearable filters are usually made of black polymer which blocks all wavelengths of light (important to prevent eye damage from non-visible light) and renders the sun a yellow-orange color.  Most locations only sell the personal filters in bulk (10 or 25 are the usual minimums).  I purchased a stock of 60, for example and have sold them all.

**IMPORTANT NOTE: There are at least FIVE different standards for measuring the transmissiveness of filters: “Neutral Density: ND, Optical Density – also often called OD, Shade Number – for welders glass, transmissiveness, and stops).  For a photographer who is familiar with the ND scale used to rate Neutral Density filters this is NOT the same scale as the “Optical Density” scale used to rate solar filters!  An ND3.8 (photo solar filter) in the optical density scale is equivalent to the ND8192 neutral density filter!  An ND8 filter for your camera is 3-stops of light. For safe visual viewing you need about 14 stops! So an ND8 is  woefully short of light snuffing capabilities. Moreover neutral density filters used with cameras may or may not extinguish harmful Infra-red and Ultraviolet radiation.

• What about using an 8-stop Vari-ND (ND2-400 Filter)?

At the maximum 8-stop setting (ND400) the filter is passing 0.4% of the sun’s energy.  That’s more than 40 times the recommended energy for PHOTOGRAPHIC use. A photo filter should transmit less than 0.01% (1/10,000). Even a 12-stop reduction in light (ND4096, Optical Density 3.6) may pass too much energy for safe and effective photographic use. 13-stops which is the same as Density 3.8 or ND8192 is preferable.

• What about the “Big Stopper” by Lee or Hitech?

10-stops sounds like an impressive reduction in light but the resin filter (Hitech) passes quite a lot of IR and UV light. And 10-stops still really isn’t enough.  I haven’t see the response curve for the Big Stopper. It would be UNWISE to assume the Big Stopper or any filter is safe if it isn’t solar specific – especially if you plan to try to take more than a few shots. These filters certainly aren’t visually safe.

In addition to not reducing the light to safe levels, having an insufficient energy reduction means that you’ll have problems with flare / glare.

## Photographic and Visual Filters

There are several varieties of solar filters that can be used for photography.

• Black polymer screw-in solar filters – pre-made you order them to screw in on the end of your lens(es). There would be little point in getting such a filter for any lens that is less than about 200 mm effective focal length.  It might be worth making your own from an existing UV filter.
• Black polymer “covers” or black polymer solar sheets from which you can make filters.
• Silver solar mylar sheets (make your own) which render the sun a more natural white to a blueish cast. Mylar is less durable than polymer.
• Glass solar Filters in a housing to fit over a lens hood or dew shield (ND 5.0)
• ND 3.8 (Photographic) solar filters which are NOT suitable for visual observing.  This type generally only comes in sheet form and you must make your own filter. Not suitable for visual use because it allows too much of the suns energy to pass through to your eyes.
• Tuned solar filters (also called Hydrogen Alpha) – like those found in the Coronado solar telescope. I don’t have a background in these, but normally you will need a set of filters and they are primarily designed for use with telescopes. The cost is upward of \$600.

Normally when you buy a solar filter, you select a size that will cover your lens hood (or for a telescope the “dew shield”).  Fit on filters should be snug so that they cannot come off if bumped or buffeted by wind. You really do NOT want your eyesight destroyed by a gust of wind!  The filter should also seal out light leaks since most solar filters are reflective.

## Filter Costs

Since the upcoming event(s) all require solar filters, they are in short supply. It may take literally MONTHS to get a filter from some suppliers.

Costs depend on the size and quality of the filter. For the average telephoto lens expect to pay from \$60 to \$100 for the glass type filters.  For very large lenses or for telescopes that cost could reach up to \$200 and more.

Black polymer or silver mylar sheets will run you about \$35 not including shipping.  The ND 3.8 Baader photo filter is about \$90 for a 19 x 39″ sheet.  I also ordered a “natural color” Mylar polymer sheet (12″ x 12″) for about \$30 from RainbowSymphony. RainbowSymphony also has the solar glasses at minimums of 25 pieces. Finding things on the RainbowSymphony site is a bit tedious. (NOTE These prices were as of May, 2012)

There are many references on the web for building your own solar filter if you choose not to buy a glass filter.

As with all things, quality varies quite a bit. I do not have the resources to exhaustively test all filters, but so far my best photographic results have come using the Baader Astrosolar Film (PHOTO) and hand made filters.  This filter passes enough light to keep the exposures fast at low ISOs and is optically superior to any other mylar or polymer material I’ve tried.  The glass (visually safe) filter I have darkens the image to make it visually safe and renders the sun an orange color (which it isn’t by the way).  Somewhat longer exposures are needed for this.

## Resources

I’ve placed these in order according to my experience surfing and buying from the company.

## Recommendations

If your goal is photos, get a Baader Astrosolar filter. It is not eye safe, but it does allow higher shutter speeds and versatility. Practically this means you’ll have to make your own filter from sheets as there are few resources with pre-made photo transmissiveness filters. Making your own filter is not that hard.

Second choice based on quality is a glass filter that seals well over your lens hood (you do have one, right?). The “outside diameter” of your lens hood must be about the same as or slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the glass filter you’ll put over it.  Since most glass filters are designed for visual use, you’re shutter speeds will be a bit slower but good quality glass will keep your photo sharp.

Get a pair of solar glasses for your eyes regardless of what else you do.

# Washington Landmark + Penumbral Eclipse

If you took my course “Night Photography 111: Catching The Moon” then perhaps you’ve managed to calculate where and when to capture the eclipsed moon over one of our National Landmarks.  Which one?  Let me keep you in suspense for just a little bit longer.

Normally I’d love to share this information widely, but I fear that a large number of photographers might not only attract unwanted attention, it appears that when we published the information about the prime location for the eclipse over the Golden Gate Bridge over 200 people showed up!

# Weekend Schedule

Saturday, December 10, 2011:  5:30 AM Meet at Eastern Market Metro Station (don’t be late). Address: 8th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, SE, Washington, DC end shooting around 7:30 AM, end of the event around 9:00 AM. See below for maps and more details.

Saturday, December 10, 2011: 4:30 PM (Optional) Catch the moon rising behind the Old Post Office Tower and/or the Washington Monument.  See below for details.

Sunday, December 11, 2011: 4:45 PM (Optional) Catch sunset over the city with great views from the 315 foot tall Old Post Office Tower. See the EVENT details on the Night and Low Light Photography Meetup of Stafford, VA for details.  (NOTE: I’ll give preference to anyone who is attending the Eclipse event with me).

## What to Bring (all events)

• Camera, memory cards, extra memory cards, batteries, extra batteries
• small flashlight
• Sturdy tripod
• Release cable / intervalometer (recommended)
• Telephoto lens (200mm or better recommended)
• LAYERED clothing including a hat, gloves, scarf, parka
• Rain-proof covering for yourself and your camera. A shower cap usually is enough for the camera. And emergency poncho may work for yourself.
• Change/cash for bus/cab/metro fares + beverage or breakfast

# Eclipse Event on December 10th, 5:30 AM

Meeting location: Eastern Market Metro station: 8th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, SE, Washington, DC

NOTE: Trains will not be running until after 7 am. You must take a taxi, bus or other transportation to arrive on time. Maximum cab fare within the city is \$19.  Could be much more from outside the city.

You’ll know it’s me ’cause I’ll have a red backpack and at least one tripod hanging like a sword on my side. If it’s dark enough I’ll also have a flashing green light hanging on me.

After meeting PROMPTLY at the Metro Station we will be walking one to four blocks south east (as far as 12th street). Exact location will depend on my scouting the day prior.

While walking to the final location, I’ll go over some important points on how to capture the moon and foreground. We begin shooting at about 6:15 AM and shoot until about 7:25 AM – after sunrise.  Then we’ll head to the Starbucks at 401 8th Street SE (1/2 block south from the Eastern Market Metro) – or possibly to Le Pain Quotidien which opens at 8:00 AM to discuss what we’ve done and enjoy a hot beverage and/or breakfast.  By 9:00 or so we’ll be finished and can either take metro from Eastern Market or whatever other arrangements you’ve made.  But don’t forget about the EVENING event!

# SATURDAY PM: Moon Rise Behind the Washington Monument

If you attended the Night Photography 111 class you may have noticed that I provided the location for the evening shoot… the shore of the Potomac river on the Mount Vernon trail.

There are two possibilities here: at the waterfront in FRONT of a tree (not sure if there is room), or further away.

## DOUBLE Bonus

While using Google Street View, I noticed another building to the left of the Washington Monument… The Old Post Office Tower.  So it is possible to get the Post Office Tower with the moon behind it first:

As it actually looked!

At 17:14 PM and stay put to catch the moon 4 diameters above the Washington Monument OR move south about 200 feet to catch the moon directly behind the Washington Monument at 17:33 PM.

### Directions

The vantage point(s) are on Columbia Island along the George Washington Parkway. Easiest way to get the there is: Take Metro to the Arlington Cemetary Station (BLUE line). Exit the metro along Memorial drive east. Follow the pedestrian pathway turning south after crossing the bridge (before the Potomac Bridge).  There will be opportunities to photograph the Lincoln Memorial and other buildings while you’re on your way… so allow plenty of time.  The sun will be at your back so the buildings may look spectacular.

## SUNDAY: Post Office Tower

If you hadn’t noticed, the following evening I’m planning to get some evening shots downtown from the Old Post Office Tower.  The group is limited to 12 attendees so join up soon if you’re interested.  It will be REALLY cool to get the moon rising behind it on the 10th and then photograph from it on the 11th.

# QUESTIONS About the Eclipse Event

Q: I’ll be using a Canon 50D. I have the following lenses

Canon EF 300m f/4 L
Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8 L
Both the 1.4 and 2X teleconvertors
Sigma 170-500mm f/5-6.3

Which one do you recommend?

A: Bring them all!  Ok, so that may be impractical in which case the 300mm + 1.4X would be my weapon of choice.  But I’d probably bring the 70-200mm also in case you want to shoot wider.